Prostate cancer, common cancer in males, initiates in the prostate gland cells. These cells divide uncontrollably and form a tumor. Some types of prostate cancer have slow growth and are locally limited. However, other prostate cancer types are more aggressive and spread rapidly. Prostate gland cancer is the second leading cancer in males in India. There are the best doctors for prostate cancer treatment in Nashik.
Types of Prostate Cancer
There are the following types of prostate cancer:
- Adenocarcinoma: It develops in the cells lining the gland and the prostate tube. It is the most common prostate cancer.
- Transitional cell carcinoma: It initiates in the prostate ducts or the urethral section that runs into the prostate gland.
- Squamous cell carcinoma: It develops in the flat cells covering the prostate and has more rapid progression than adenocarcinoma.
- Small cell prostate cancer: It is a type of neuroendocrine cancer. It progresses more rapidly than other prostate cancers.
You should visit the best prostate cancer treatment hospital in Nashik to diagnose the type and stage of prostate cancer and to undergo optimum treatment.
Symptoms of Prostate Cancer
Some symptoms of prostate cancer are:
- Blood in semen and urine
- Reduced stream of urine
- Difficulty urination
- Erectile dysfunction
- Nighttime urination
- Urinary incontinence
- Unintentional weight loss
- Pain in bones
Causes of Prostate Cancer
The exact reason for prostate cancer is not known. However, some factors increase the risk of prostate cancer. These are:
- Age over 50 years
- Black people
- Family history of prostate cancer
- High-fat diets
Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is diagnosed through the following techniques:
- Screening: Screening for prostate cancer may be through determining the level of Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (through a blood test) and digital rectal examination.
- Ultrasound: Transrectal ultrasound helps provide images of the prostate gland to determine the presence of an overgrowth.
- MRI: More detailed images of the prostate gland are obtained through MRI. It also assists the doctor in identifying the areas for removing prostate tissue samples during the biopsy.
- Biopsy: The tissues of the prostate gland are obtained through a fine needle and sent to the laboratory for analysis.
Treatment for Prostate Cancer
Advanced cancer care centers provide treatment for prostate cancer in Nashik. Several treatment options for prostate cancer are:
Monitoring: The doctor recommends active monitoring for patients with low-grade prostate cancer. In some cases, treatment may never be required. During active surveillance, the patient undergoes rectal examination, blood tests, and biopsies to evaluate prostate cancer progression.
Surgery: Oncology surgeons prefer treatment when the prostate cancer is limited to the prostate. The surgery may also be used along with other treatment options for advanced prostate cancer. The surgeon may remove the prostate with nearby tissues and lymph nodes during the surgery. The surgeon may perform a laparoscopic or open prostatectomy.
Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy for prostate cancer involves external and internal radiation therapy. In external radiation therapy, the radiation beam is guided on the prostate to kill cancerous cells. It is opted for treating cancer limited to the prostate gland. The doctor sometimes performs radiation therapy after prostate surgery to kill the remaining cancerous cells. Internal radiation therapy is also called brachytherapy. The radioactive seeds are placed near or into the tumor. The seeds deliver doses of radiation for a prolonged period to the cancerous prostate tissues.
Heating or freezing prostate tissue: The cancerous prostate tissue is heated and killed with the highly concentrated ultrasound energy generated through high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Freezing, also known as cryoablation or cryotherapy, involves using cold gas that freezes the cancerous prostate tissues.
Hormone therapy: Testosterone plays an important role in the growth of cancerous prostate cells. Ceasing the availability of testosterone to these cells prevent or delay their growth. Hormone therapy related to the prostate includes using medications that stop the production of testosterone or prevent the availability of testosterone to cancer cells. The surgeon may also perform orchiectomy (removal of the testicles).
Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is an option when prostate cancer is metastasized to other organs. It is also used when prostate cancer patients do not respond to hormonal therapy.
Immunotherapy: It involves interfering with the process through which the prostate cancer cells hide from the immune system. Immunotherapy is generally an option for treating advanced prostate cancer when hormonal therapy is ineffective. It may include genetically engineering the immune cells to fight against prostate cancer and boosting the immune system to identify and destroy prostate cancer cells.
Frequently Asked Questions
What are the other conditions that have symptoms similar to prostate cancer?
Several other conditions also cause symptoms similar to prostate cancer. Benign prostatic hyperplasia involves enlargement of the prostate gland. It results in blockage of the bladder and urethra and difficulty in urination, and sexual function interference. Another condition is prostatitis, in which the prostate gland gets inflamed.
Are there any side effects of prostate surgery?
Like any other surgery, there are certain complications with prostate surgery. However, given the life-threatening characteristics of prostate cancer, the benefits of prostate surgery are far more than the risks. Some of the risks of prostate cancer surgery are impotence, urinary incontinence, and dry orgasm due to the absence of semen production.
How should I prevent the risk of prostate cancer?
Non-modifiable risk factors, such as family history or age, cannot be altered. However, modifiable factors can be managed to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. For example, you should take adequate rest, manage stress, quit smoking, eat a healthy diet, and exercise regularly to reduce your risk of prostate cancer.
Compared to the past, is there an increase in the rate of survival with prostate cancer?
With the advancement in prostate cancer surgery and the availability of new and highly effective drugs coupled with sophisticated diagnostic techniques, the survival rate, especially in patients with localized or regional prostate cancer, is significantly increased. The current 5-year survival rate in such patients is almost 100 percent compared to only 69 percent in the 1970s.
I am on testosterone replacement therapy. Does it increase my risk of cancer?
No evidence is available to conclude that there is an increased risk of prostate cancer due to testosterone replacement therapy. However, the therapy has its side effects and requires frequent monitoring from healthcare providers.