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Ewing Family of Tumors (EFOT)

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The Ewing family of tumors is a group of tumors that includes Ewing tumors of bone, peripheral neuroepithelioma tumors, extraosseous Ewing tumors, and Askin tumors. All tumors of the Ewing family are derived from the same type of stem cells. These tumors occur primarily in the bone and soft tissue around the affected bone. Also, these can develop in any bone. However, they are mostly found in hip bones, long bones, the humerus, or ribs. 

Types of Ewing Family of Tumors

The common types of the Ewing family of tumors are:

  • Extraosseous Ewing Tumor: It originates in the soft tissues around bones. They are also known as extraskeletal Ewing sarcomas.
  • Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal Tumor: It occurs in bone and soft tissues and is a rare form of childhood cancer.
  • Ewing Sarcoma of Bone: It starts in the bone and is the most common type of tumor in the Ewing family.

Symptoms of Ewing Family of Tumors

The common symptoms of the Ewing family of tumors are:

  • Pain, swelling, or stiffness in the suspected area
  • Weight loss
  • Bone pain that worsens at night
  • Broken bone without any injury 
  • Always being tired 
  • Constant fever
  • Bleeding or bruising easily
  • Weakness, numbness, and paralysis in the arms and legs 
  • Shortness of breath

If patients experience any of these symptoms, they should consult a physician. At HCG Manavata Cancer Center, we have some of the best Ewing sarcoma doctors in Nashik who can diligently manage Ewing tumor cases successfully.

Causes of Ewing Family of Tumors

The exact cause of the Ewing tumors is still not known. However, some factors that increase the risk of the Ewing family of tumors are:

  • Increasing age 
  • A family history of Ewing tumors
  • Exposure to certain chemicals and radiation
  • Inactive or sedentary lifestyle 

Diagnosis of Ewing Family of Tumors

The common tests performed for diagnosis of the Ewing family of tumors are:

  • Physical Examination: The patient is physically examined, and their medical history is also discussed. The doctor may order additional tests for a conclusive diagnosis.
  • Imaging Tests: Doctors recommend various imaging tests like bone scan, MRI scan, PET/CT scan, etc., to detect the type of Ewing tumor, its size, exact location, the disease stage, etc. The results of these scans are also used in treatment planning and monitoring the treatment response.
  • Biopsy: It is a confirmatory test for the Ewing family of the tumor. In this, a small piece of tissue is taken from the suspected area or lymph node to check for cancerous cells of Ewing sarcoma.
  • Bone aspiration and biopsy: It helps to determine the Ewing cancer, its type, and how much it has spread by examining the sample of liquid of bone marrow and bone tissue from the pelvic area.
  • Immunohistochemistry: A tissue sample is treated with special proteins that attach to the Ewing cells and help in their diagnosis.

Treatment for Ewing Family of Tumors

The specialists at HCG Manavata Cancer Center strive to provide the best Ewing sarcoma treatment in Nashik. The common procedures used for the treatment of the Ewing family of tumors are:

Chemotherapy: The treatment of the Ewing family of tumors starts with chemotherapy, which shrinks the tumor or acts as the main treatment. For advanced-stage tumors, chemotherapy may be used to relieve signs and symptoms and slow down cancer growth. It is also used after surgery or radiation therapy to kill the remaining cancerous cells.

Surgery: It is usually performed for the early-stage Ewing family of tumors. The doctor removes the Ewing cancerous cells and nearby tissues and lymph nodes. If possible, the doctor will remove the affected organ entirely or as many cancerous cells as possible. The surgeries for the Ewing family of tumors also involve removing a small portion of the bone or an entire limb.

Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy is very effective in treating these tumors as they are sensitive to radiation. It helps in controlling tumor growth. In addition, it improves the quality of life for young patients with localized Ewing tumors. 

Immunotherapy: Immune checkpoint inhibitors and CAR T-cell immunotherapy are found to be quite promising against the Ewing family of tumors. It is mainly used for advanced-stage Ewing tumors or treating Ewing tumors that have an increased risk of recurrence.

Stem cell transplant: It can be used for treating the Ewing family of tumors when they have spread to other body parts, when they are no longer responding to other methods, or when cancer comes back after treatment. A high dose of chemotherapy is used to kill the cancerous cells, and stem cells are transplanted.

Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy uses specialized drugs to target the Ewing cancerous cells while leaving the healthy cells unharmed. It works more effectively than chemotherapy. It destroys the Ewing tumor by blocking chemicals that help them grow by interacting with the proteins within the cells, preventing the formation of new blood vessels, and triggering the immune system to kill the cancerous cells.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. What factors impact the prognosis of the Ewing family of tumors?

The prognosis of the Ewing family of tumors depends on the size of the tumor, its location, age, overall health, the extent of disease, response to treatment, and new developments in treatment.

2. What to expect after the treatment of the Ewing family tumors?

After the treatment, you will be monitored using various tests every 3 to 6 months for at least five years to check for the reoccurrence of the condition. The doctor may suggest some exercises to increase the movement of the affected limb.

3. What if the Ewing family of tumors reoccurs?

Ewing tumors may reoccur after the treatment. In that case, the doctor may use a combination of two or more treatment methods or a new therapy to treat the relapse.

4. Are there any long-term side effects of stem cell transplants?

Yes, the possible long-term side effects of stem cell transplant for Ewing tumors include bone pain, lung problems, damage to other organs, growth of other cancers, weight gain, vision problems, etc.

5. What is the survival rate of the Ewing family of Sarcoma?

The survival rate for the Ewing tumors depends on many factors. Early detection and timely treatment together promise excellent survival rates.

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