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Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects lymphocytic cells of the immune system. The development of cancer restricts the body’s ability to fight against cancer. The incidence is less than 1 million cases per year in India. In this cancer, lymphocytes, or white blood cells, divide out of control and cause swelling in the neck, armpits, or groin lymph nodes. Due to advances in diagnosis and treatment, there are 100% chances of recovery from this disease.

Types of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

Hodgkin’s lymphoma is divided into two groups: the classical type and the nodular lymphocyte predominant type.

The classical type of Hodgkin’s lymphoma has four subtypes:

  • Nodular sclerosing: It is the most common Hodgkin’s lymphoma in young adults, especially young women. This lymphoma is found in its early stages when it causes swelling in the lymph nodes of the neck.
  • Mixed cellularity: The condition is more common in older adults. It is about 25 percent of all Hodgkin’s lymphoma. It affects the lymph nodes, which contain different types of lymphocytes and other blood cells.
  • Lymphocyte rich: These lymphocytes are very small in size. It is responsible for 5% of all classical lymphomas. The condition is more often diagnosed in men.
  • Lymphocyte depleted: It is a rare disease that accounts for less than 1 percent of all Hodgkin’s lymphomas. It is most often diagnosed in HIV patients or older adults.

Almost 5% of the cases of Hodgkin’s lymphoma are nodular lymphocyte predominant types. The cancerous cells present in this type are large and are a variation of Reed-Sternberg cells. These are known as “popcorn cells.” It starts in the lymph nodes under the arm and in the neck.

Symptoms of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

  • Swelling in lymph nodes of the neck, armpits, or groin
  • Fever
  • Heavy sweating during sleep
  • Unexplained weight loss from the past six months
  • Itching after bathing or drinking alcohol
  • Fatigue
  • Pain in lymph nodes after drinking alcohol
  • Increased risk of infections
  • Nose bleeds, heavy menstrual periods, and blood clots under the skin

Causes of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

The causes of Hodgkin’s lymphoma are not known. However, several factors increase the risk of Hodgkin’s lymphoma:

  • Age
  • Family history
  • Being male
  • HIV infection
  • Weak immune system
  • Epstein-Barr virus infection

Diagnosis of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

The diagnosis of Hodgkin’s lymphoma can be made through the following methods:

  • Physical examination: The doctor will examine for swollen lymph nodes of the neck, underarm, and groin, as well as swelling of the spleen or liver.
  • Blood tests: A blood test is used to examine the general health of the body and for signs of cancer. A blood sample is taken to test the levels of red and white blood cells and platelets in the blood. In addition, it is used to diagnose how well organs such as the liver and kidneys work.
  • Imaging tests: These tests include a chest X-ray, CT scan, MRI scan, and PET scan. These images check the spread of cancer inside the body.
  • Biopsy: The doctor may recommend a lymph node biopsy. During this procedure, the tissue from one of the lymph nodes is examined under a microscope for the presence of cancer cells.
  • Bone marrow biopsy: The procedure involves inserting a needle into the hipbone to take a sample of bone marrow. The sample of bone marrow is then evaluated to look for Hodgkin’s lymphoma cells.

If the patients have symptoms that indicate Hodgkin’s lymphoma or are diagnosed with the disease, they should consult a doctor immediately. At HCG Manavata Cancer Center, we have some of the best Hodgkin’s lymphoma doctors in Nashik who are extensively trained in the diagnosis and management of Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Treatment for Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

At HCG Manavata Cancer Center, we have a team of specialists to are trained to deliver the best Hodgkin’s Lymphoma treatment in Nashik. Following are the treatment options available Hodgkin’s lymphoma are:

Chemotherapy: The therapy involves drugs to kill lymphoma cells. The treatment of classical lymphoma usually begins with chemotherapy. It can be used along with radiation therapy. The treatment approach for nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin’s lymphoma is usually a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams, such as X-rays and protons, that kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy specifically targets cancer cells and areas where they spread.

Bone marrow transplant: The treatment involves the removal of diseased bone marrow and replacing it with healthy stem cells. During the procedure, stem cells are removed, frozen, and stored. The stem cells are then transferred back into the body.

Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy targets the specific weaknesses of cancer cells. The therapy blocks these weaknesses and causes the death of cancer cells. Targeted therapy is mostly combined with radiation therapy to treat nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy strengthens the immune system to fight against cancer cells. Immunotherapy can be an option for treating Hodgkin’s lymphoma when the disease does not respond to other treatments.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. Is there a complete cure for Hodgkin’s lymphoma?

Doctors say that Hodgkin’s disease can reappear after some time of treatment. Regular visits, physical examinations, and tests can confirm the recurrence of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. People who have not experienced a recurrence for a long time or over five years can be considered cured. However, in some cases, lymphoma can never go away completely.

2. What are the complications of Hodgkin’s lymphoma?

The complications of Hodgkin’s lymphoma include a weakened immune system that makes the body susceptible to infections. You have to take vaccines for several months after the treatment. Hodgkin’s lymphoma is usually treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These therapies can cause certain temporary or permanent side effects.

3. Can Hodgkin’s lymphoma result in solid tumors?

Yes, this cancer may cause solid tumors. Cancerous lymphocytes build up in the lymph nodes of glands and organs. It may form painful lumps. It causes problems with breathing, circulation, and other functions. These lumps may need to be removed.

4. What is the prognosis of Hodgkin’s lymphoma?

The five-year survival rate of Hodgkin’s lymphoma is 80 percent. However, the survival rate of Hodgkin’s lymphoma depends on the type and stage of the disease.

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