Testicular cancer initiates in the testes, a gland present in the reproductive system in males. It can develop at any age. However, men aged 15 to 44 years are at increased risk. Testicular cancer is rare and easily treatable if diagnosed in an early stage. The disease affects 1 out of 250 men. The risk of death from this cancer is low with the appropriate treatment.
Types of Testicular Cancer
There are two common testicular cancers:
Germ cell tumor: Germ cell tumor is of two types:
Stromal cell tumor: This cancer occurs in the tissues surrounding the reproductive cells. The two types of stromal cell tumors include Leydig cell tumor and Sertoli cell tumor.
- Seminomas: It is a slow-growing and slow-spreading cancer. It is common among men aged between 25 to 45 years. It is further classified into two types: classical and spermatocyte.
- Non-seminomas: It is a type of germ cell tumor. It commonly occurs in men aged 15 to 30 years.
Symptoms of Testicular Cancer
Patients with testicular cancer have the following symptoms:
- A lump or tumor in one or both testes
- Feeling of heaviness in the scrotum
- Swelling of testicles
- Pain in the testicle
- Changes in male breast tissue
- Back pain
- Fluid-filled in the scrotum
- Shrinking testicle
Causes of Testicular Cancer
Exact cause of testicular cancer is unknown. It develops when cells multiply faster than usual and form lumps or tumors. Some factors may increase the risk of testicular cancer, such as:
- Undescended testicles
- Family or personal history
- Abnormal testicles
If the patients experience any symptoms that might indicate the presence of testicular cancer, they should consult a doctor. We have some of the best doctors for testicular cancer in Nashik; our specialists are trained to deliver the best treatment for testicular cancer.
Diagnosis of Testicular Cancer
Testicular cancer can be diagnosed through the following technique:
- Physical examination: The doctor will examine physical symptoms. The patient may also be evaluated based on medical and family history. The doctor will notice the development of a lump or tumor in the scrotum and looks for any non-painful swelling.
- Ultrasound: The painless procedure uses a high frequency of sound waves to create an image of the testicles.
- Blood tests: The doctor will consider blood tests to detect certain hormones in the blood, such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG).
- Surgery: The surgery is considered to remove the testicles. The removed testicles will examine whether the lump is cancerous or non-cancerous and the type of cancer. Unlike other cancers where the biopsy is done, testicular cancer is usually almost confirmed by blood tests and ultrasound.
Treatment for Testicular Cancer
HCG Manavata Cancer Center is one of the best testicular cancer hospitals in Nashik. Some of the key treatment options available for testicular cancer are:
Surgery: Removing cancer is the main objective of the surgery. It is the most common approach for cancer. Surgery can remove one or both of the testicles and surrounding lymph nodes. The surgery is further classified into two types:
- Radical inguinal orchiectomy: Orchiectomy is the procedure of removing the testicles. It can treat both seminoma and non-seminoma testicular cancer. The procedure involves an incision into the groin to remove a tumor. The surgery blocks the blood vessels and lymph vessels that stop the spread of cancer to the rest of the body.
- Retroperitoneal node dissection (RPLND): The procedure is more common in non-seminoma testicular cancer. The surgery involves an incision into the abdomen to remove the lymph nodes. It removes the lymph nodes located behind abdominal organs. RPLND is also performed to prevent cancer spread to the liver or lungs.
Radiation therapy: The therapy uses high-energy radiation. These rays have the potential to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy might be used after the surgery. It prevents the recurrence of the tumor. The treatment can be given externally or internally. External radiation therapy is delivered by using a machine. The machine targets cancer locally. Internal radiation therapy involves radioactive seeds or wires. The wires or seeds are placed at the site of cancer.
Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is a systemic treatment to kill cancer cells. The medication travels in the systemic circulation to kill cancer cells that may have spread to other body parts. Chemotherapy is successful in treating patients with seminomas as well as non-seminomas. In addition, it has improved the survival rate. Sometimes, it might be used as a primary treatment. Chemotherapy can also be done before RNLTD and orchiectomy.
Frequently Asked Questions
Would my fertility be affected after testicular cancer treatment?
Testes are the organs responsible for generating the male sex hormone testosterone. However, testicular cancer often occurs in one testis. Therefore, your other testis can function normally and generate testosterone. However, if cancer affects both testes, they need to be removed. In such cases, fertility cannot be maintained. In addition, the presence of cancer and its treatment affects overall fertility.
What are the most common sites for metastasis of testicular cancer?
Testicular cancer can spread in its advanced stage. Cancer may spread to distant organs in an advanced stage. Testicular cancer may spread to several organs, such as the lungs, bones, liver, and brain. Lungs are most commonly affected by testicular cancer metastasis.
Is there any way to prevent testicular cancer?
No, there is no complete prevention for testicular cancer. Doctors recommend regular self-examination. It is necessary to detect cancer at its early stage.
When will I be completely recovered after an orchiectomy?
After orchiectomy, you experience swelling around your scrotum. Generally, the swelling goes away within two to four weeks. You should wait for the incisions to heal before involving in any sexual activity. You should avoid lifting heavy objects that require a lot of physical effort for a few weeks after the surgery.