Can Bone Marrow Transplant Treat All Types of Blood Diseases?

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Can Bone Marrow Transplant Treat All Types of Blood Diseases?

   September 11, 2022

   HCG Nasik Team,

Introduction

Blood cells, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, are formed in the bone marrow. Thus, most diseases related to the blood, such as sickle cell anemia, leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma, may be treated through bone marrow transplantation. Therefore, the patients should visit the top blood cancer hospital in Nashik for bone marrow transplantation

Types of a Bone Marrow Transplant

There are two significant types of bone marrow transplants used for blood cancer treatment in Nashik. These are:

  • Autologous transplant: The person’s stem cells are used in an autologous stem cell transplant. The patients’ stem cells are obtained and harvested before starting a damaging therapy, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy. After the treatment is done, the doctor reinjects the stem cells in the patient. This transplant is possible only when the patients have healthy bone marrow. It lowers the risk of graft versus host disease complications.
  • Allogeneic Transplants: The stem cells injected into the body of the recipient are obtained from a donor. This transplant is performed in patients with damaged bone marrow. It increases the risk of graft versus host disease complications. The patients require immunosuppressive medications for a significant period. However, it may make the patient vulnerable to infection. The donor should be genetically close to the recipient. The success of this type of transplant depends on how closely the donor is matched to the recipient.

Diseases Cured by Bone Marrow Transplant

There are several blood diseases treated by bone marrow transplant. Some of them are:

  • Aplastic Anemia: It is a condition in which new blood cells are not produced in the bone marrow. The patients with this condition experience fatigue and have compromised immune systems and uncontrolled bleeding. Aplastic anemia can occur at any age. It is a serious but rare condition. It can be treated with medications, blood transfusions, and stem cell transplants.
  • Lymphoma: It is cancer that affects the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system comprises lymph nodes, thymus glands, spleen, and bone marrow. The lymphoma may affect any area of the lymphatic system as well as other organs all over the body. There are several types of lymphoma. The most common types are Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
  • Leukemia: The cancer of the blood-forming tissues in the body is leukemia. The blood-forming tissues include the lymphatic system and the bone marrow. There are several types of leukemia. Some of the leukemias are common in children, while other forms are common in adults. Treatments include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, bone marrow transplant, and immunotherapy.
  • Multiple Myeloma: Multiple myeloma is the cancer of plasma cells. Plasma cells are the white blood cells that are responsible for the production of antibodies during the fight against infection. In multiple myeloma, the cancerous plasma cells do not produce antibodies. Instead, they produce proteins that cause complications. In slow-growing multiple myeloma that does not cause the symptoms, the doctor may monitor the patient. Treatment includes immunotherapy, chemotherapy, r=targeted therapy, and bone marrow transplant.
  • Sickle Cell Anemia: It alters the shape of the red blood cells. Red blood cells are responsible for carrying oxygen to all organs of the body. Because of their round shape, the red blood cells easily flow through the blood vessels. However, in sickle cell anemia, the shape of the red blood cells becomes sickle-like which increases stickiness. It may slow the blood flow or block the blood.
  • Thalassemia: Hemoglobin molecules have alpha and beta chains. The synthesis of these chains is affected by the mutation. In alpha thalassemia, the production of the alpha chain is affected, while in beta-thalassemia, the production of the beta chain is affected. Thalassemia results in a low level of hemoglobin. The patient experiences fatigue, weakness, slow growth, and dark urine.
  • Congenital Neutropenia: Congenital diseases are diseases that are present by birth. Congenital neutropenia is a condition in which the patients have a low level of neutrophils. Neutrophils are the white blood cells that help in fighting against infection. Patients with congenital neutropenia may affect the overall development, function, and lifespan of neutrophils.
  • Chemotherapy-induced Bone Marrow Damage: A common side effect of chemotherapy is bone marrow suppression. It is also known as myelosuppression. The condition is characterized by a reduction in bone marrow activity that results in reduced production of cells in the blood. Myelosuppression may range from mild to severe. In some cases, myelosuppression is fatal.
  • Polycythemia Vera: It is a blood cancer in which the bone marrow of the patients starts producing an abnormally high number of red blood cells. In the absence of treatment, it is life-threatening. It is a rare disease, and in many cases, the patients do not know it for years. If properly treated, it reduces the signs and symptoms and complications.
  • Ewing Sarcoma: It is a rare cancer that occurs in the bone and the surrounding soft tissues. It generally starts from the leg bone and pelvis but may occur at any bone. The soft tissues of the abdomen, chest, and limbs may also be affected by Ewing sarcoma. Although it may occur at any age, children and teenagers are more commonly affected by this condition.

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